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By John Hoffman

This publication covers alphabetically either the key ideas in political conception and the foremost writers within the box. whereas making sure accuracy and objectivity, the entries signify interpretations which are either tough and fascinating. the basis underlying the publication is that politics can't be studied with no conception, within which case the extra concrete and correct the idea, the higher. providing concept in an summary style makes it daunting for college kids who can locate it tricky to work out the hyperlinks among idea and perform. The definitions during this word list consequently relate political rules to political realities (i.e. daily controversies) in an try to cause them to as energetic, stimulating and available as attainable. phrases are chosen established upon the strategies such a lot frequently utilized in instructing.

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See also: class, communism, history, Marx, state Further reading: McLellan 1977 equality A political concept that implies that people with similar attributes need to be treated in the same way. The pre-liberal tradition defended equality in a way that excluded most of the population. Citizens were equal, but divided naturally from slaves or serfs. The liberal tradition extends equality to all human beings, but this equality, it could be argued, is abstract and ignores the differences between people.

Communism can imply a society without classes and the state, although Plato’s notion of communism was clearly statist. It has been argued most notably by Engels that early tribal societies were communistic. Communism has been espoused by some anarchists as well as Marxists. Both see communist societies as stateless and classless although anarchists would exclude government and constraint from communism, whereas Marxists arguably would not. Marxists have generally described communism as a phase that follows on from socialism, and none of the Communist Party states described themselves as communist in character, even though they were called ‘communist’ by their opponents.

The movement not only challenges the vision of endless and irresponsible consumption, but sees the importance of unintended consequences in analysing the problem of environmental degradation. Some elements link environmentalism to feminism, arguing that violence towards nature is an extension of violence towards women. The movement divides over whether concern for the environment is linked to the well-being of humans, or whether the earth represents a system in its own right. M537 - HOFFMAN TXT M_UP 13/12/06 1:22 PM Page 47 Gary Gary's G4:Users:Gary: POLITICAL THEORY A–Z 47 Ecocentrics argue that many Greens are concerned with prioritising human rights, and ignore the rights and needs of nature as a world in itself.

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