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Com Page32 The oldest VPN categorization was based on the topology of point-to-point links in an overlay VPN implementation: ■ Full-mesh topology provides a dedicated virtual circuit between any two CErouters in the network ■ Partial-mesh topology reduces the number of virtual circuits, usually to the minimum number that still provides optimum transport between major sites ■ Hub-and-spoke topology is the ultimate reduction of partial-mesh – many sites (spokes) are only connected with the central site(s) (hubs) with no direct connectivity between the spokes.

The device linking a customer site with the P-network is called Customer Edge (CE) device. Most commonly this is a router, called CE-router. This component was traditionally named Customer Premises Equipment (CPE). The edge device in Service Provider network, to which the customers are attached, is called Provider Edge (PE) device. The device inside the Provider network with no customer connectivity is a Provider (P) device. Review Questions Answer the following questions: 2-8 ■ Why are customers interested in Virtual Private Networks?

The topology categorization ranges VPNs from full mesh, where there is a direct virtual circuit between any two sites, to partial mesh, which is built based on a number of constraints (traffic patterns and cost being the most important of them) and finally hub-and-spoke where a central site acts as the transit point between all spoke sites. Real-life large networks are usually implemented with a combination of these topologies. The connectivity categorization divides VPNs into simple VPNs (with any-to-any connectivity), overlay VPNs where a single site participates in more than one simple VPN, Central Services VPNs, where some sites have limited connectivity and Network Management VPNs, which are really only a special case of Central Services VPN.

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