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By William L. Leap

Examines the variety of English in American Indian speech groups.

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Case Study 3: Isleta (Central New Mexico) Isleta, New Mexico, offers an entirely different picture of an on-reservation speech community. 11 There has not been an nonIndian population in residence within the reservation boundaries for some time, and other institutions and practices at this pueblo strengthen the boundaries between Isleta and outsiders that residential restrictions maintain. Isleta pueblo (and the Isleta Indian reservation) is located in central New Mexico, fifteen miles south of the city-center of Albuquerque.

The presence of English and Spanish on this reservation notwithstanding, a significant portion of the pueblo's on-reservation residents still speak Isletan Tiwa (the ancestral language of this community). This is the language of tribal government (even when speaking in the presence of outsiders) and the language of the pueblo's ceremonial life. Language retention has been strong enough here to encourage the Bureau of Indian Affairs to propose adding a bilingual component to the day school's kindergarten program, so that entering students could receive academic instruction in Tiwa as well as English.

Cortez, Pryor, Eagle Butte, Shannon, St. 's 17 to 48%) or for Indian and non-Indian students as a whole (O'Malley's 63%). Speech Communities In the remainder of this chapter, I present profiles of language use within several types of American Indian speech communities. I intend these profiles to show the range of opportunities for using English open to American Indians and Alaska Natives today and how fluency in Indian English coincides with ancestral language fluency and with standard English skills in these speech settings.

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