Download Analysis and fate of surfactants in the aquatic environment by Thomas P. Knepper, Pim de Voogt, Damia Barcelo PDF

By Thomas P. Knepper, Pim de Voogt, Damia Barcelo

An knowing of the destiny and behavior of natural chemical substances, resembling surfactants, within the setting is a prerequisite for the sustainable improvement of human healthiness and ecosystems. As surfactants are being produced in large quantities, you will need to have a close wisdom approximately their lifetime within the atmosphere, their biodegradability in wastewater therapy vegetation and in ordinary waters, and their ecotoxicity. Parameters appropriate for the evaluation of long term behaviour, akin to interactions with hormonal structures have to be understood to prevent unforeseen hostile results to destiny generations of individuals and the surroundings. despite the fact that, the id and quantification of industrial surfactants within the surroundings is made extra complex and bulky simply because they include of tens to hundreds and hundreds of homologues, oligomers and isomers of anionic, nonionic, cationic and amphoteric compounds.

The EU-funded PRISTINE venture (Priority surfactants and their poisonous metabolites in wastewater effluents: An built-in learn; ENV4-CT97-0494) presents the root for the content material of this identify. It offers coverage makers and with designated details on research and concentrations of surfactants and their degradation items within the environment.

In addition to a normal advent to surfactants, this booklet contains a accomplished number of analytical suggestions, together with pattern dealing with, for the research of surfactants within the aquatic setting. Readers will locate all of the worthwhile info for interpreting the various teams of surfactants, with specific emphasis on transformation items. caliber coverage is usually pronounced on intimately. Chapters on toxicity and probability evaluate also are incorporated and provides a whole standpoint at the surfactants challenge within the aquatic setting.

· provides the discovering of EU-funded learn into destiny and behavior of natural chemical compounds within the environment
· contains a complete number of analytical recommendations, together with pattern dealing with, for the research of surfactants within the aquatic environment
· offers suitable details to all teams operating within the box of surfactants

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Extra resources for Analysis and fate of surfactants in the aquatic environment

Sample text

The second phase is related to the phosphate component of detergents, which is responsible for eutrophication of natural waters. A ban of these compounds and substitution with other, more environmentally acceptable, products such as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), were adopted. A third phase is characterised by the exhaustive detection of toxic metabolites of surfactants in wastewater effluents and in digested sludges [50]. The accumulation of LAS in digested sludges, the worldwide presence of NP, a recalcitrant metabolite from NPEO with recent evidences of its estrogenic character [51], the replacement of the cationic surfactant DTDMAC because of its toxicity to aquatic organisms and its accumulation in sewage sludges by highly biodegradable-related compounds can illustrate the recent concerns about detergent-related environmental problems.

Linear paraffins, however, can also be directly transformed into a particular surfactant; SAS. For this particular use, a C16 – C18 cut is used and transformed into SAS using a specific photosulfonation reaction (UV catalysed) or a sulfo-oxidation reaction. e. kerosene or gas oil, using specific molecular sieves (zeolytes) in a continuous process. The final product is a highly linear (. 98%) mix of the various homologues contained in the feedstock used, generally in the range of C10 – C14 for kerosenes and from C14 up to C18þ when a heavier feed is used (gas oil).

Because of the persistence and toxicity of some degradation intermediates, their use has been reduced in several countries either through voluntary bans by the chemical industry or by legal regulations. However, excellent properties in combination with comparably low production costs hampers their complete replacement with other more environmentally acceptable alternatives. AEs have found application in all kinds of domestic and institutional detergents, and cleaning agents. Their low foaming characteristics, better electrolyte compatibility and degreasing capacity relative to anionic surfactants make them especially attractive for use in I&I products [18].

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