By Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs, Masahiko Tomitori
Volumes II, III and IV study the actual and technical starting place for fresh growth in utilized near-field scanning probe thoughts, and construct upon the 1st quantity released in early 2004. the sector is progressing so speedy that there's a want for a moment set of volumes to catch the most recent advancements. It constitutes a well timed accomplished assessment of SPM functions, now that business functions span topographic and dynamical floor experiences of thin-film semiconductors, polymers, paper, ceramics, and magnetic and organic fabrics. quantity II introduces scanning probe microscopy, together with sensor expertise, quantity III covers the full diversity of characterization probabilities utilizing SPM and quantity IV bargains chapters on makes use of in quite a few commercial purposes. The overseas viewpoint provided in those 3 volumes - which belong jointly - contributes extra to the evolution of SPM techniques.
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Extra resources for Applied scanning probe methods 2. Scanning probe microscopy techniques
This transition occurs in the temporal evolution of the phase as well as in the average interaction force. It is also visible in the THD, which increases by 50%. 8 nm. The THD decreases signiﬁcantly and recovers Fig. 7. The amplitude and phase of the ﬁrst harmonic, the total harmonic distortion, and the average tip– sample forces, as obtained from the numeric simulation. The transition from the low amplitude state to the high amplitude state can be identiﬁed by the phase jump (arrow). The transition between both states is accompanied by a step in the total harmonic distortion of the position output (THD, arrow).
A projection of the landscape onto the Laplace plane is shown in Fig. 5c. Note that, for the cantilever model, the poles and zeros are located in the left half plane, very close to the imaginary axis. Usually, poles and zeros are indicated in the so-called pole zero map as illustrated in Fig. 5d. Here, poles are usually marked by crosses, zeros are indicated by open circles. The circles of equal frequency and the lines of equal damping are also indicated. Poles in the left half of the plane have Fig.
As can be seen in Fig. 6, the poles migrate along bent lines and not along the lines of equal damping. This means that the modal damping can vary substantially depending upon the tip–sample contact. In Fig. 6b, the migration of the poles is illustrated for kˆ ts < 0. The arrow indicates the direction of migration for increasing kˆ ts . The poles now migrate towards zeros with lower frequencies. For kˆ ts < −mω21 = −1, one of the dominant poles is real and positive and the system becomes unstable.