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By H. W. Doelle

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The oxidation of a catabolite is followed by an energy transfer to an endergonic biosynthetic reaction, whereby ATP is synthesized and again hydrolyzed substrate ^ ^ (catabolism) products ~+S ^ - ADP + P i ^ ^~- products I I ^ ^ΑΤΡ S (biosynthesis) ^~~ substrate In both cases catabolic and biosynthetic reactions are coupled via oxidoreduction mechanisms and both result in the production, conservation, and release of energy in the form of the shuttle service for phosphate groups, as described in the previous section.

Quinones are widespread in living cells and some of them, mainly the methylated quinones with polyisoprenoid side chains, play an important part as intermediate hydrogen carriers in the respiratory system. These include two families, the ubiquinones (Fig. 11) and the vitamin K O CH I H 3 C-0-C C ^C^ II II 3 CH 2 I HjC—O—C^ C /C—(CH 2 —CH=C—CH 2 ) n —H II o methylated quinone polyisoprenoid group Fig. 11. Ubiquinone. 53 COENZYMES H I O II HC^ C ^C-" C ^C—CH, I II II H II O Fig. 12. Vitamin K. group (Fig.

Hawker, L. , and Linton, A. H. (1971). "Microorganisms. " Arnold, London. Karlson, P. (1970). "Kurzes Lehrbuch der Biochemie," 7th ed. Thieme, Stuttgart. Klotz, I. M. (1967). " Academic Press, New York. Krogstadt, D . , and Howland, J. L. (1966). Role of menaquinone in Corynebacterium diphtheriae electron transport. Biochim. Biophys. Ada 118, 189. Lehninger, A. L. (1965). " Benjamin, New York. Lieberman, E. , and Skulacher, V. P. (1970). Conversion of biomembrane-produced energy into electric form.

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