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By Michael R. Fischbach

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Abd al-Qader is credited with changing the literary scene of Mauritania. He shifted from poetry to prose in the early 1980s as he became aware of the inadequacy of poetry to respond to Mauritania’s social changes and suggest solutions. The respect of the readers for his poetry allowed this turning point in his career, giving his prose writing—a genre that had received little attention—respectability. Furthermore, traditional classical poetry was losing its appeal among the young readers. While free verse had made major strides in the Arab world, it was slow to rally supporters in Mauritania and met with opposition from traditional poets.

D. in art from the Budapest Art Academy in 1978. Combining expressionism and surrealism, he depicted topics adhering to the reality of everyday life. Before his death in 1999, El-Nachar created works related to Islamic Art. He died in 1999. Born in Dairout, Egypt in 1941, Farghali Abdel Nafiz graduated from the Institute of Art Education and the Academy of Fine Art in Florence, Italy. He had been the Dean of the Faculty of Art Education from 1989 to 1994. His choice of color is rich and ever changing.

Abbas has been the central figure in revived peace talks starting in 2003. Believing that he, unlike Arafat, was willing to rein in anti-Israeli militants and resume negotiations, the United States and Israel agreed to a return to the talks that had ended in January 2001, but only with Abbas and not Arafat. Within hours of Abbas’s assuming the position of prime minister on 29 April 2003, the United States announced details of a new peace initiative, called the Roadmap to Peace, that would pick up where the Oslo process had failed.

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