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Thus, if we want to study the driving force of evolution, we have to investigate the changes in the genetic information. The genome, carrier of this genetic information, is in most organisms deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), whereas some viruses have a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome. Part of the genetic information in DNA is transcribed into RNA: either mRNA, which acts as a template for protein synthesis; rRNA, which together with ribosomal proteins constitutes the protein translation machinery; tRNA, which offers the encoded amino acid; or small RNAs, some of which are involved in regulating expression of genes.

How erratic that path is depends on the effective population size and thus on the amount of genetic drift, and on the steepness of the slope towards the adaptive peak (Fig. 4b vs. 4c). Once this peak has been reached, neutral evolution will predominate and mutations are fixed, mainly because of random genetic drift. In this case, the smaller the effective population size, the faster mutations become fixed. Also, the sharper the fitness peak in the landscape, the lower the genetic variation in the population (Fig.

However, this is not always true. For example, synonymous changes can alter 11 Basic concepts of molecular evolution 1st generation N=10 2nd generation N=10 3rd generation N=10 4th generation N=5 5th generation N=3 Coalescence time Bottleneck event Mutation event 6th generation N=9 7th generation N=11 Fig. 3 Population dynamics of alleles. Each different symbol represents a different allele. A mutation event in the sixth generation gives rise to a new allele. The figure illustrates fixation and loss of alleles during a bottleneck event, and the concept of coalescence time (tracking back the time to the most recent common ancestor of the grey individuals).

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