By Barbara J. Clark, Douglas M. Stocco
Non-vesicular intracellular ldl cholesterol shipping is a vital mechanism for keeping membrane ldl cholesterol homeostasis. fresh stories of reviews directed at soluble ldl cholesterol shipping proteins point out that aberrant expression of the beginning proteins may perhaps give a contribution to affliction states linked to problems in ldl cholesterol homeostasis. this is often an exhilarating new path within the box and the aim of this booklet can be to spotlight the present study directed at power roles for the beginning kin in diabetes, melanoma and atherogenesis.
This publication additionally presents a private and ancient point of view of the discovery-to-publication trip that the authors had for his or her specific commence area loved one. The objective could be to supply views to graduate scholars, post-doctoral fellows and endocrinology fellows at the learn discovery process.
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Extra info for Cholesterol Transporters of the START Domain Protein Family in Health and Disease: START Proteins - Structure and Function
Since continual synthesis of 37 kDa precursor StAR is required to maintain the active cytosolic form of StAR associated with mitochondria, the mechanisms that control StAR protein expression control steroidogenesis. Both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms regulate StAR gene expression, and this chapter provides an overview of the mechanisms controlling StAR expression in the gonads and adrenal. First, a general overview for transcription initiation and hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis is provided to set the context for StAR regulation.
Potential heterodimer formation between CREB, AP-1, and C/EBP bZIP proteins provide a level of control to integrate gene expression through one common element yet distinct trans-activating proteins. 5). Mutation of either the SF-1 or GATA-4 site does not diminish cAMP induction of StAR promoter activity, yet the loss of both of these factors attenuates overall promoter activity. The SF-1 and GATA-4 elements flank the critical CRE/AP-1 element, and protein-protein interactions between SF-1-GATA-4, SF-1-CREB, and C/EBPβ-GATA-4 have been reported and these interactions may help stabilize CREB/CREM/AP-1 factor binding at the CRE/AP-1 element.
M. Stocco mitochondria for cholesterol transport into the organelle. Thus, relatively quickly, key data confirmed StAR’s role as the acute regulator of steroidogenesis. Given the importance of the criteria for new protein synthesis for the acute regulation of steroidogenesis, understanding the molecular mechanisms that control the increase in StAR expression following trophic hormone stimulation would be important for understanding the mechanisms that control steroidogenesis. The cAMP responsive region of mouse and human StAR promoter is a non-consensus CRE/AP-1 element with overlapping specificity for members of the CREB/CREM and AP-1 protein families.