Download Chronobiology and Obesity by Marta Garaulet, Jose M. Ordovás PDF

By Marta Garaulet, Jose M. Ordovás

Circadian rhythms are such an innate a part of our lives that we infrequently pause to take a position why they even exist. a few stories have steered that the disruption of the circadian procedure will be causal for weight problems and manifestations of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Shift-work, sleep-deprivation and bright-light-exposure at evening are with regards to elevated adiposity (obesity) and occurrence of MetS. it's been supplied facts of clock genes expression in human adipose tissue and proven its organization with various elements of the MetS. additionally, present reports are illustrating the actual position of alternative clock genes versions and their anticipated haplotypes in MetS.

The goal of “Chronobiology and weight problems” is to explain the mechanisms implicated within the interplay among chonodisruption and metabolic-related health problems, akin to weight problems and MetS, with assorted approaches.

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Sample text

The Importance of “Time” in Metabolism of Adipose Tissue Food Intake and Lipogenesis and Lipogenetic Processes All discoveries discussed above are clear evidences that in the metabolism of the adipose tissue it is important not only to understand the “what” and the “how” but also the “when” of the metabolic processes. Moreover, since the antagonism of many of the metabolic processes that occur in adipose tissue, it is expected that not all occur simultaneously. For example, mammals show alternating cycles of lipogenesis and lipolysis.

CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins are transcription factors that possess the functional domain bHLH (“Basic Helix–Loop–Helix”) which confer them with a DNA binding capacity. A. Madrid Pérez Fig. 2 Organisation of the molecular mammalian oscillator. The cellular oscillatory machinery is composed of a positive (CLOCK and BMAL1) and a negative (PER1–3 and CRY1, 2) limb. CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimers, after binding to E-box elements, drive the transcription of several genes: Cry1–2, Per1-3, Rev-Erba and multiple clock controlled genes (CCGs).

Visceral fat-type: excess fat in the visceral compartment (b) possessing lipids organized within one large and “unilocular” droplet which occupies the majority of intracellular space, compressing the cytoplasm and nucleus into a thin visible rim [48], brown adipocytes are organized into multiple smaller “multilocular” droplets and they are additionally characterized by their high content of large mitochondria packed with cristae within the cytoplasm. Moreover, brown adipocytes are polygonal, have centrally placed nuclei, and are relatively smaller than white adipocytes [49].

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