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105 401 0985_05f9_c1 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

5 Km loop length • At the U-Reference point (PRA) T1/E1 standard 401 0985_05f9_c1 95 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 930/931 Call setup, call supervision, call tear down, and supplementary services Uses standard set of messages to communicate 401 0985_05f9_c1 96 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems Confidential 48 D-Channel Encapsulation Layer 3 Layer 2 Protocol Length of Discriminator Call Reference Flag Address Control Layer 1 401 0985_05f9_c1 Call Reference Message Type Information CRC Information Elements Flag D Channel (16 Kbps or 64 Kbps) 97 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco Systems Confidential 39 Other Useful Voice QoS Schemes in IP • Custom Queuing, Priority Queuing and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) • Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) • IP Precedence Bit setting in the ToS Field of the IP Header • Compressed Real Time Protocol (CRTP) 401 0985_05f9_c1 79 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. Summary • Voice traffic engineering principles still apply • Packet-based voice trunks can provide efficiency with high quality if properly engineered • The biggest impact on voice quality over a data network will be as a result of the delay and delay variation 401 0985_05f9_c1 80 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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