By Gianluca P. Parolin
The results of 5 years of in depth learn on citizenship within the Arab international, this quantity makes use of the multidisciplinary procedure of comparative criminal experiences for you to think of the multifaceted truth of nationality and citizenship. Gianluca P. Parolin brings jointly methodologies from fields as diversified as anthropology, linguistics, sociology, and political technological know-how, whereas exploring a huge diversity of Western and Arab references accessed of their unique languages and assets, making in-text references and modern Arab laws obtainable for the overall reader.
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Additional info for Citizenship in the Arab world: kin, religion and nation-state
6 The chieftain and the assembly The lack of a centralised power does not necessarily imply the lack of any form of political and institutional organisation. Actually, such forms of organisation are more ‘at ease’ when there are no other struc- MEMBERSHIP IN THE KIN GROUP 39 tures competing with them, and therefore reveal their innermost character. Being intrinsically dynamic, there is no need for inflexible classifications or a rigid terminology, which can turn out to be quite misleading. 20 The authority of a chieftain is believed to have emerged through the institutionalisation of the leader chosen at times by the group to face a specific threat.
This apparently was the delicate phase of transition from emergency to stability. The chieftain was usually called sayyid or ra’ı¯s, but the essence of his functions (su’dud or ri’a¯sah) did not reach the level of political authority (mulk); he enjoyed a mere primacy that did not allow him to impose his decisions (ibn Khaldu¯n, al-Muqaddimah: II, §16). 22 The chieftain was generally a man of age (hence the occurrence of the title of shaykh as well),23 temperance (hilm),24 generosity, courage and military talent.
In 619, Muhammad’s uncle abu¯ Ta¯lib died, leaving him without protection. In the system of kin group relations, enjoying someone’s protection was a vital issue, and the Prophet of Islam had to replace abu¯ Ta¯lib with someone else. He therefore applied to abu¯ Lahab, who turned him down on the grounds of Muhammad’s belief that their common ancestor cAbd al-muttalib was doomed. Since no Quraish was willing to protect him, Muhammad turned to other kin groups in want of protection; at this point, as has been suggested (Montgomery Watt 1953: 138), the horizons of the prophetic mission – originally limited to Mecca and its inhabitants – expanded to reach a larger audience.