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By Frederick Engels Karl Marx

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Celts, Spanish and Samnites: Warriors in a Soldier's War' in The Second Punic War: A Reappraisal (University of London Press: London, 1996) Sage, M. , Greek Hoplite 480-323 BC (Osprey, Oxford, 2000) Scullard, H. , Hannibal (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft: Darmstadt, 1993) Snodgrass, A. , Warfare in the Classical World (Salamander: London, 1980) Wilcox, P. , Hannibal's War with Rome: The Armies and Campaigns 216 BC (Osprey: Oxford, 1999) 63 RELATED TITLES INDEX Figures in bold refer to illustrations Achaian League 43 Aeneid 14 Agathokles 19-20,27,30-31 appearance Balearic slingers C (25) citizen soldiers A (17), C (25), 57 GaulishiCeltic warriors 34,36,37 Greek hoplites 43 Iberian warriors 18, B (21),27,36 Libyan warriors C (24) Oscan warriors F (45) overview 31-32 Samnite warriors 26 Spartan warriors E (41) see also armour; helmets Appian 58 Aratos 43 Archilochos 46,49,56 Aristophanes 48 Aristotle 12, 13, 14, 15 armour greaves 36,43, F (45) linen A (17), 57 metal B (21),26,32,33,35, E (41), F (45) overview 32 quilted 27,36 Autaritos 23 Baetis, battle of the (229 BC) B (21) Balearic warriors C (25), 43, 58 Barca family: soldier loyalty to 24 Bomilcar 13 Cannae, battle of (216 BC) 22,24-26 Carthage 4,5 colonies 5-6 constitution 12-15 foundation and history 4-6 Roman capture (146 BC) H (59), 60 Cato, Marcus Porcius 5 cavalry 22 Celtic warriors see Gaulish warriors cereal types 48--49 Cicero 15 citizen soldiers 14-15, 16-18, A (17) see also Sacred Band Dido 12,14 Diodoros Siculus 16,19,24,56-58 Ebusus, battle of (206 elephants 50,51,58 Eryx 23 BC) C (25) Florus 4, 24, 50 food and rations 46-52 Gaulish warriors appearance and equipment 22, 34, 36,37,48,58 in Sicily 23 generals: scrutiny and freedom of command 12-14 Greek hoplites 19-20,23,30-31,43, 57-58 Hamilcar 19-20, 23, 24, 30 Hannibal 51,52 acclamation as general 15,24 army's composition 19,23-24,60-61 at Cannae 22, 24-26 desertion of mercenaries from 31 recruitment procedures 28 at Zama 16 Hanno D (29) Hasdrubal 24 Hekatompylos 28 helmets Attic 26,53 conical-style 57 Iberian 22 Montefortino 31, F (45) Phrygian 15, A (17) pilos E (41) 'Thracian' 32, 43 Himilco 19 plunder 46 Plurarch 16, 18, 19, 51-57, 58, 61 Polybios on Balearic slingers 24 on Cannae 22 on Carthage's constiturion 15 on First Punic War 23 on Hannibal's army 24, 60, 61 on Hanno 28 on Libyan War 27-28,44--46,51 on soldiers' rations 48,49,52 on swords 36-38 on Xanthippos 40 on Zama 16,44 Iberian warriors appearance and equipment 18, B (21),22,27,36,58 desertions 31 military prowess 18 Samnite warriors 26 Scipio, Cnaeus Cornelius 31 Scipio Aemilianus, Publius Cornelius 58 shields asp is 23 caetra 19, B (21),27,30,36,43 Gaulish 22, 34 scutarus 18 scutum F (45) Sicily Carthaginian power 6 Hamilcar in 19-20 the Krimisos 16, 19, G (55), 56-58 and the Punic Wars 22-23,44 Spartan warriors E (41) swords Gaulish/Celric 14,34,36-38,48 Iberian falcata 18, B (21), C (25), Jason of Pherai 20-22 jewellery 12 killer instinct 53-56 Krimisos, battle of the (341 G (55), 56-58 BC) 16,19, Libyan War (240-237 BC) 23,27-28, D (29),44, 51 Libyan warriors appearance and equipment C (25), D (29), 47, 60-61 loyalty 23-24,27-28 military prowess 24-26 Lilybaeum, siege of 22-23 Livy 13,31,60 Mago 19,24 mercenaries advantages 56-58 organization and tactics 58-60 overview 18-26 pa yi ng 43--44 recruitment 28-31 see also individual ethnic types by name Metaurus, battle of the (207 BC) 51 Naravas 30 Numidian warriors 28-30,31 Onasander 42 Oscan belts 26, 49 Oscan warriors 31-32, F (45) Paullus, Lucius Aemilius 22 Pausanias 57 pay 44--46 Philon of Byzantium 38 Pindar 54 Plato 51 recruitment 26-31 religion 6, 12 Roman legionaries 47,48,49 The Praetorian Guard Cannae 216 BC Ilannlhal sma~h('~ Ancient Siege Warfare J'erslan....

The missing insets would have been of organic material, probably bone or ivory. Note the two suspension rings attached to the scabbard frame of the fa/cara, and the engraving of a bird near the point of the kopis. (Fields-Carre Collection) 56 mercenary armies of Carthage would have contained their ample share of 'old soldiers'. In a conflict of masses, success depends upon the subordination of self to the will of the group. Yet it is within the arena of the battlefield that a soldier, even an 'old soldier', witnesses the greatest violence in war.

The year 146 BC has an air of culmination about it, with two illustrious cities, Punic Carthage and Greek Corinth, destroyed and plundered by the soldiers of Rome. Here we see the ruins of the citadel of Byrsa, Punic Carthage, with Cap Bon or Rass Adder, the ancient Hermaia Promontory, in the far distance. (Ancient Art & Architecture) based on clan, familiar, and settlement groupings, making a man's people the witness of his behaviour. Tactics were simple and relied on a wild, headlong rush by a yelling mass of warriors in a rough phalangial order headed by their war leaders, followed up by deadly close work with spear and sword.

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