By Milner R., Tofte M.
The complete mathematical description of the practical programming language ML used to be given in Milner, Tofte, and Harper's Definition of ordinary ML. This better half quantity explains intensive the which means, or semantic conception, of ML. jointly, the 2 volumes supply a whole realizing of the main well-liked of a brand new crew of sensible programming languages that incorporates Haskell and Scheme. In making the Definition more straightforward to appreciate, the authors not just clarify what ML is, they clarify why it really is. They current the various rigorous research that helps the Definition together with a variety of theorems that specific vital homes of the language. The observation is additionally a operating record that exhibits the way the really good concept of ML can give a contribution to broader examine on language layout and semantics. Contents: Preface. Executing an easy application. Dynamic Semantics for the middle. Dynamic Semantics for the Modules. Static Semantics for the center. variety Declarations and Principality. Static Semantics for the Modules. Signature Matching. Elaboration of Functors. Admissible Semantic gadgets and Proofs. Elaboration of Signature Expressions. significant Signatures. Appendixes: evidence of Principality. Identifier prestige. suggestions to routines. error and Ambiguities.
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2 we treat structures by themselves without signatures or functors. 3 we deal with interfaces – the aspect of signatures which affects evaluation. 4 we extend the discussion to functors. 5 we look at an alternative meaning for signatures in structure and functor declarations. 1 Structures and signatures It is well known from practical programming that, especially when large programs are developed, a major part of the development effort lies in deciding “what goes where”. It is also common experience that one wishes to encapsulate one or more types and operations on those types so that they can be regarded as a single unit.
This is true here; in particular, elaboration will fail for the signature ascription in exactly the same cases as it will fail the functor application. 5 3 DYNAMIC SEMANTICS FOR THE MODULES Alternative semantics To put the treatment of signatures in perspective, we finish this chapter by looking at an alternative meaning for signature ascription. One could decide that signature ascription should have no curtailing effect, but should merely act as a conformity test (we defined conformity above).
Exception constructors excon behave in some ways just like value constructors con; when an exception e is handled by rule 120 or 121 it is analysed by the match exactly as datatype values are analysed in function application. ) But there are important differences. First, the quasi-datatype exn is extensible; its constructors are not given once and for all, but new constructors can be declared at any time by the exception declaration, rule 130 [p 53]. 8 Consider a skeletal example: exception E ; fun f() = let exception E in raise E end ; f() handle E => 3 | _ => 4 If the result were 3, it would mean that the first mrule of the match was successful, and this would imply that a user at top-level could accidentally handle an exception whose constructor was defined locally inside a function-body and should therefore be inaccessible outside.