By Keith W. Ross, James F. Kurose
(Pearson schooling) presents a clean method of laptop networking guideline. Contents contain the net, protocols, community center, entry networks and actual media, hold up and loss in packet-switched networks, routing, multimedia networking, community administration, and extra. DLC: web (Computer network).
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Additional info for Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet
The first router on a path from the end system to any other distant end system.. Since access network technology is closely tied to physical media technology (fiber, coaxial pair, twisted pair telephone wire, radio spectrum), we consider these two topics together in this section. 5-1 shows the access networks' links highlighted in red. 5-1: Access networks Access networks can be loosely divided into three categories: ● ● ● residential access networks, connecting a home end system into the network; institutional access networks, connecting an end system in a business or educational institution into the network; mobile access networks, connecting a mobile end system into the network These categories are not hard and fast; some corporate end systems may well use the access network technology that we ascribe to residential access networks, and vice versa.
Htm (1 of 7)20/11/2004 15:51:42 Access Networks and Physical Media is your ordinary twisted-pair phone line. ) Today's modem speeds allow dialup access at rates up to 56 Kbps. However, due to the poor quality of twisted-pair line between many homes and ISPs, many users get an effective rate significantly less than 56 Kbps. For an in depth discussion of the practical aspects of modems see the Institute for Global Communications (IGC) web page on Modems and Data Communications. While dialup modems require conversion of the end system's digital data into analog form for transmission, so-called narrowband ISDN technology (Integrated Services Digital Network) [Pacific Bell 1998] allows for all-digital transmission of data from a home end system over ISDN "telephone" lines to a phone company central office.
In particular, every packet sent by the headend travels downstream on every link to every home; and every packet sent by a home travels on the upstream channel to the headend. For this reason, if several users are receiving different Internet videos on the downstream channel, actual rate at which each user receives its video will be significantly less than downstream rate. On the other hand, if all the active users are Web surfing, then each of the users may actually receive Web pages at the full downstream rate, as a small collection of users will rarely receive a Web page at exactly the same time.