By Brigitte Pakendorf
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Extra info for Contact in the prehistory of the Sakha (Yakuts): Linguistic and genetic perspectives
E. e. schematic copies) as selective copying. 1 summarizes the differences in terminology discussed in the previous two sections. Thus, Thomason & Kaufman, Van Coetsem (and following him, Winford), and Johanson appear superficially to mean the same things when they talk about ‘borrowing’/‘adoption’ vs. ‘interference’/‘imposition’. All three approaches agree that in the first kind of language contact predominantly substance copies are transferred, while in the second kind of contact schematic copies are predominantly transferred, especially in the initial stages of the process.
2. 1 Approaches focussing on the type of copies that are transferred Weinreich (1953: 1, 7) distinguishes between borrowing and interference, with borrowing involving the transfer of substance copies such as lexemes or morphemes, while interference involves the transfer not of actual formal elements, 27 but of schematic copies such as structural patterns and semantic meaning. e. form-meaning units, as opposed to convergence to designate the introduction of what he calls schematic linguemes (linguistic elements made up of form alone or meaning alone).
1999). This classification also argues for three primary branches, here called Northern, Central, and Southern Tungusic, with the Northern branch split into a Northeastern ('ven and Arman) and a Northwestern group (the latter consisting of Evenki, Solon and Negidal). The Central branch is split into a Central-Eastern group containing Orog and Udihe, and a Central-Western group consisting of Kili, Nanay, Ulga and Orok, while the Southern branch contains Jurchen and Manchu. g. the Western dialect of 'ven is depicted as being in transition to Evenki (though still closer to 'ven) (Doerfer 1978: 4, 5).