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267to 'mutual trippings') and perform as a mutual causal system, defined by Maruyama (1963, p. 164) as one wherein, 'the elements within a system influence each other simultaneously or alternatingly' . , p. 29 Wilkins's singular contribution was to show that, under certain conditions, one type of regenerative feedback could have a negative effect (that possibly well-intentioned but misdirected control would progressively increase, or 'amplify', rather than reduce crime) , but the swiftness with which this became the new deviancy theorist's compleat work on mutual causal systems concealed two alternative possibilities.

181) continues: The main foundation for the institution of suspicion lies in its workability as a tentative solution to the constant pressures to which police are subjected - and not in the existence of inevitable suspects who command or otherwise intimidate an institutional response. Suspects are utilised or employed by a police force as part of the method by which an uneasy accommodation with other elements of state and society is reached. Thus viewed, the institution of suspicion, which focuses attention on a regular but small criminal corps, is mainly based on the police pursuit of other socially valuable goals; taken by itself, the pursuit of thieves could be managed in quite different ways.

6 Mutual causality possibilities Now, what is particularly interesting about degeneration as opposed to regeneration is that these two forms of morphostasis (con traction and expansion) are theoretically and necessarily linked in an alternating cyde. Maruyama ( I 963, p. ' Thus, contraction inevitably breeds expansion, and vice versa. Accordingly, we may consecutively serialise the Expansion and Contraction models, producing a self-repeating morphostasis oscillation (given in Fig. 7 on page 32; cf.

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