By Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan, Graeme Herd, Lisa Watanabe
This e-book takes a unique examine the trendy heart East throughout the prisms of six cascading unfavourable serious turning issues. It identifies the seeds of a possible 7th within the collective dignity deficits generated through terrible governance paradigms and exacerbated by way of geopolitical festival for the region’s normal assets.
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Extra info for Critical Turning Points in the Middle East: 1915 - 2015
This is not to say that discrimination never took place or that people from other faiths, especially Judaism and Christianity, were treated as equals. They did have to pay a specific tax as a sign of submission to Muslim hegemony, although this was justified on the basis of not obliging Muslims to pay the Muslim tax (zakat). Thus, rather than a discriminatory act, the (jiziah) tax on non-Muslims was viewed as similar to the Muslim tax. However, in general, their beliefs were respected and they were granted protection within self-governed communities, known as dhimmis.
20 The Fatimids also undertook the modernization of cities, constructing mosques, schools and libraries, and encouraging art and culture. Although they strictly respected and observed Islamic laws, they did not force non-Muslims to convert. The majority of Egyptians remained Coptic Christian and Jewish, and most of the Muslims remained Sunni. Only a small proportion of the population, mainly the elite, practised Shiism. While most of the Middle East was weakened by external and internal assaults, a power was growing in Anatolia from the remnants of the Seljuqs: the Ottoman Turks.
It proved to be an incubator for ideological radicalization, networking and training. The important consequences of this conflict would only be perceptible in the next decade. The critical turning point that occurred from 1987 to the turn of the 1990s is the focus of Chapter 7. Contrary to previous experience, the combination of events – some quite tragic – had, this time, the potential to generate some positive changes to the region. These crucial events included the end of the Iraq–Iran war, the first Intifada in the Palestinian-occupied territories, the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the First Gulf War subsequent to the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.