By Clifford E. Trafzer
Clifford Trafzer's hectic new paintings, Death Stalks the Yakama, examines lifestyles, dying, and the shockingly excessive mortality charges that experience continued one of the fourteen tribes and bands residing at the Yakama Reservation within the nation of Washington. The paintings incorporates a helpful dialogue of Indian ideals approximately spirits, conventional factors of loss of life, mourning ceremonies, and memorials. extra major, even if, is Trafzer's study into heretofore unused parturition and loss of life files from 1888-1964. In those records, he discovers severe facts to illustrate how and why many reservation humans died in "epidemics" of pneumonia, tuberculosis, and middle disease.
dying Stalks the Yakama, takes under consideration many variables, together with age, gender, indexed reasons of demise, place of dwelling, and blood quantum. moreover, analyses of fetal and boy or girl mortality premiums in addition to crude demise premiums bobbing up from tuberculosis, pneumonia, middle sickness, injuries, and different motives are awarded. Trafzer argues that local american citizens residing at the Yakama Reservation have been, in reality, in jeopardy end result of the "reservation process" itself. not just did this alien and synthetic tradition significantly adjust conventional methods of lifestyles, yet sanitation tools, housing, hospitals, public schooling, drugs, and scientific team of workers affiliated with the reservation process all proved insufficient, and every in its personal means contributed considerably to excessive Yakama loss of life rates.
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Additional resources for Death Stalks the Yakama: Epidemiological Transitions and Mortality on the Yakama Indian Reservation, 1888-1964
During the Yakama War, he was with a group of warriors surrounded by blue coat soldiers. Young Yannaneck explained that "his body was immune to the arrows and bullets of the enemy" so he would ride for help. "31 The most important power that could be transferred from the spirits to a male or female was the tamanwas power, the ability to heal and cure illnesses. A person who received this power was called a twati and was far more important within his or her own community than war, civil, or any other type of The Yakama 35 leader.
27 The censuses are voluminous, but they are not helpful in terms of deaths on the reservation. Some of the early censuses provide short notations if a person died, but they are not numerous and do not offer such variables as cause of death, place, age, or other sources of information. The best historical source on death are the Death Certificates, but a future analysis of the census data will offer a greater understanding of the Yakama population over time. Although limited use of the Yakama censuses is made for Death Stalks the Yakama, the Yakama censuses from 1890 to 1930 are currently being coded at ten-year intervals for two separate projects.
Oral interview by Richard D. Scheuerman with Geraldine Guie, Yakima, Washington, 1983. 31. , Mourning Dove: A Salishan Autobiography (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990), xxvi. An obituary of Mourning Dove is found in the Spokesman Review, 13 August 1936. 32. Oral interview by Clifford E. Trafzer with Mary Nelson, Olympia, Washington, 1988. 33. Several other examples of spirit sickness can be found in the Papers of Lucullus Virgil McWhorter, Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Holland Library, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.