Download Desert, Retribution, and Torture by Stephen Kershnar PDF

By Stephen Kershnar

On a few money owed, punishment is justified by way of the great effects that it brings approximately. particularly, punishment deters, incapacitates, and will, every so often, rehabilitate criminals. On a retributivist conception, punishment isn't justified at the foundation of those fascinating effects, yet relatively at the indisputable fact that the perpetrator has performed whatever that merits punishment.

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S. Constitution 90 First Amendment (1791) 91 Fourth Amendment (1791) 91 Eighth Amendment (1791) 91 Fourteenth Amendment (1868) 92 Prisoners' Rights Cases 92 Johnson v. Avery (1969) 93 Holt v. Sarver (1969) 94 Estelle v. Gamble (1976) 95 Page ix Bell v. Wolfish (1979) 96 Ruiz v. Estelle (1980) 97 Hudson v. McMillian (1992) 98 Jordan v. Gardner (1993) 99 The Declaration of Principles (1870) 101 Prison Data 102 Sentencing 103 Prison System Expansion 104 Prisoner Characteristics 104 Prisoner Health and Mortality 105 Private Prisons 106 Notes 118 6 Agencies and Organizations 119 7 Print Resources 149 Books and Reference Materials 150 Journals, Magazines, and Newsletters 172 Government Documents and Agency Publications 176 8 Nonprint Resources 181 Films 183 Internet Addresses 206 Glossary 211 Index 217 About the Authors 227 Page xi Preface For over 200 years, imprisonment has held the central place in the punishment of criminals in the United States.

In their typical configuration, these systems had a central penitentiary (often a renovated institution dating from the early nineteenth century) for serious adult offenders, male and female. In the Northeast and the Midwest most states also operated two reformatory prisons for young adults, one for males and one for females. Typically the female reformatory would receive mainly misdemeanants and minor first offenders, but increasingly they also received female felons formerly held at the central penitentiary.

However, incarceration is our punishment of choice for most serious offenders. All citizens ought to know something about the origins of imprisonment, its evolution, key policy issues raised by its current use, and problems likely to be associated with it in the future. Americans can be said to have invented modern incarceration as a means of criminal punishment. Although Europe provided precedents, theoretical justifications, and even architectural plans for imprisoning offenders, Americans developed the blueprints for the typical prisons of today and devised the disciplinary routines, types of sentences, and programs that prison systems of other countries subsequently adopted or modified.

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