By Leslie A. King, David Nutt, William Saulsbury, Colin Blakemore
Drug misuse and abuse are significant illnesses. damaging medications are regulated in line with type structures that
purport to narrate to the harms and hazards of every drug. despite the fact that, the technique and strategies underlying classification
systems are often neither certain nor obvious, which reduces self belief of their accuracy and undermines
health schooling messages. We built and explored the feasibility of using a nine-category matrix of damage, with
an professional delphic technique, to evaluate the harms of more than a few illicit medications in an evidence-based type. We additionally included
five felony medicinal drugs of misuse (alcohol, khat, solvents, alkyl nitrites, and tobacco) and one who has because been classified
(ketamine) for reference. the method proved manageable, and yielded approximately related rankings and scores of drug harm
when utilized by separate teams of specialists. The rating of substances produced through our evaluate of damage differed from
those utilized by present regulatory structures. Our technique off ers a scientific framework and approach which may be
used through nationwide and overseas regulatory our bodies to evaluate the damage of present and destiny medications of abuse.
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Extra resources for Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse
50 Abstract The emergence and spread of drug-resistant parasites poses a major problem for management of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic areas. Nowhere is this more apparent than in southeast Asia, where multi-drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine was exacerbated when meﬂoquine monotherapy began failing in the 1980s. A better understanding of mechanisms of (multi-) drug resistance is urgently warranted to monitor and guide antimalarial chemotherapy regimens more efﬁciently.
Bhisutthibhan J, Meshnick SR (2001) Immunoprecipitation of H-3 dihydroartemisinin translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) adducts from Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes by using anti-TCTP antibodies. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother 45:2397–2399 Bhisutthibhan J, Pan XQ, Hossler PA, Walker DJ, Yowell CA, Carlton J, Dame JB, Meshnick SR (1998) The Plasmodium falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein homolog and its reaction with the antimalarial drug artemisinin. J Biol Chem 273:16192–16198 Borstnik K, Paik IH, Shapiro TA, Posner GH (2002) Antimalarial chemotherapeutic peroxides: artemisinin, yingzhaosu A and related compounds.
1991; Fidock et al. 2000). This SNP was also observed in parasites from patients in Mali who failed treatment with CQ (Djimde et al. 2001). Transfection experiments have conﬁrmed K76T as the single most important amino acid exchange causing CQ resistance (Sidhu et al. 2002). Thus other SNPs in PfCRT as well as the N86Y change in PfMDR1 may only serve as bystander mutations, or as modulators of the primary cause of CQ resistance. Indeed, PfMDR1 N86Y has been a controversial molecular marker of CQ resistance for years (Foote et al.