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By W.F. and Browne, E.J. and Porter, Roy. Bynum

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From the late 18th century naturalists used the term 'affinity' to describe the relationship on which a natural *classification of plants or animals (or sometimes minerals) was to be based[* natural order]. Thus Henri Milne-Edwards (1800-85) thought animals should be arranged 'according to their degree of zoological kinship [parente) or, to use technical language, according to their affinities', so that the most similar *species occupy places closest to each other. By 'similar' was meant primarily structural resemblance.

Later in the century several chemists, such as Torbern Bergman ( 17 35-84), produced larger tables, trying to cover the numerous exceptions to any fixed order of reactivity such as they implied. However unsatisfactory their predictive power, they remained popular, partly because they reduced to order the growing number of known substances and *reactions, but more because they might reveal regular patterns and fulfil the dream of discovering general laws of chemistry, not by speculation but by *induction from observations.

One of several Hebrew words meaning 'man', usually signifying 'the human species', both male and female. It does not appear as a proper personal name before Gen. iv, 25 and v, I. The development of the story of a couple, Adam and Eve, is found in the pseudepigrapha. The Genesis story has much in common with other Semitic mythologies, especially the motifs of creation, paradise, tree of life, and serpent; it may have been a deliberate harmonizing of available • cosmogonies. In the New Testament, the Pauline writings viewed Adam as a type of Christ: as the one brought death, so the other brought life.

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