By Ahmet Gürses, Metin Açıkyıldız, Kübra Güneş, M. Sadi Gürses (auth.)
In this booklet the authors return to fundamentals to explain the structural variations among dyes and pigments, their mechanisms of motion, homes and functions. They set the scene by means of explaining the explanations at the back of those ameliorations and express how dyes are predominately natural compounds that dissolve or react with substrates, while pigments are (predominantly) finely flooring inorganic ingredients which are insoluble and accordingly have a special mode of coloring. in addition they describe the function of sensible teams and their influence on dyeing skill, contrasting this with the way pigments reason floor mirrored image (or mild absorption) reckoning on their chemical and crystalline constitution and relative particle dimension. The e-book explores the environmental impression of dyes in a piece that covers the actual, chemical, toxicological, and ecological homes of dyes and the way those are used to evaluate their influence at the setting and to estimate even if a given product provides a possible risk. finally, it assesses how, as well as their conventional makes use of within the fabric, leather-based, paper, paint and polish industries, dyes and pigments are integral in different fields reminiscent of microelectronics, clinical diagnostics, and in info recording techniques.
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Extra info for Dyes and Pigments
Phthalocyanines are analogs of the natural pigments. However, unlike these natural pigments, which have extremely poor stability, phthalocyanines have exceptional stability and are probably the most stable of all the colorants in use today. Substituents have only a minor effect on the color of phthalocyanines and so their hues are restricted to blue and green (Nemykin and Lukyanets 2010). As well as being extremely stable, phthalocyanines are bright and tinctorially strong; this renders them cost effective (Gregory 1990).
2 Disperse Dyes Disperse dyes generally contain azo, anthraquinone, nitro groups and they are substantially water-insoluble dyes having substantivity for one or more hydrophobic ﬁbers such as nylon, cellulose, cellulose acetate, and acrylic ﬁbers with usually applied from ﬁne aqueous dispersion (Burkinshaw 2016; Gupta and Suhas 2009). Dyeing is usually followed by a reduction-clear to prevent staining from the unﬁxed dye. During the dyeing process, the dye molecules in solution are attached to the ﬁbers and then dispersed dye molecules transfers to solution despite to their low solubility.
As well as being extremely stable, phthalocyanines are bright and tinctorially strong; this renders them cost effective (Gregory 1990). It is reported that the phthalocyanines have interesting optoelectronic properties and they have been used in many new applications such as liquid crystals, optical and electronic devices, chemical sensors, non-linear optics, and ﬁbrous assemblies beside printing inks and paints due to their (Thimiopoulos et al. 2014). 5 Sulfur Dyes With a few exceptions, sulfur dyes are used for dyeing cellulosic ﬁbers.