By Linda Edmondson, Peter Waldron
This is a quantity of essays exploring vital issues within the fiscal and social background of Russia and the Soviet Union in the course of the severe interval among 1860 and 1930. It covers advancements in agriculture, undefined, exchange, fiscal thought, defence coverage and the social influence of revolution. The essays are written through well-established experts in Russian and Soviet fiscal and social background and are meant as a tribute to the paintings of the highly-esteemed financial historian Olga Crisp.
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Extra resources for Economy and Society in Russia and the Soviet Union, 1860–1930: Essays for Olga Crisp
20 The acceptance of this principle would have made it difficult to pursue a purely egalitarian periodic redistribution policy, at least unmitigated by a well-established system of side payments. I anticipate that the Russian commune was much more flexible in its actual working arrangements than its formal rules suggest. Throughout its history, Russian serf and communal agriculture proved to be a relatively flexible institution. In the eighteenth century, it was flexible enough to allow ser£:'owning serfs and serf industrialists, and it did not prevent the settlement of a vast frontier.
In the period from 1886 to 1890, 32 per cent of the estates mortgaged to the Bank were farmed directly, and a similar figure were let out for rent in entirety. The residual (38 per cent) were partly let and partly farmed by their owners. With the recovery in grain prices from the mid-1890s one would expect there to have been a decline in the proportion let out but the opposite was the case. Between 1896 and 1900 some 47 per cent were let out in entirety; only 21 per cent farmed directly. However, there appears to have been a recovery thereafter.
In the eastern fringes of Europe the aristocracy clung to power and influence through the nineteenth century while their influence in the west was being eroded by revolution and reform. The emergence of industrial capitalism and commercial farming is associated (and not simply in Marxist conception) with the economic and social advance of a bourgeoisie or 'middle class'. Further east (the Elbe is conventionally taken as the margin) aristocratic landowners and peasant farmers continued to dominate society and much of the economy until the eve of the First World War.