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5 T. SNR, signal-to-noise ratio; RF, radio-frequency; SAR, specific absorption rate; TR, repetition time and development and MRI-guided breast biopsy and therapeutic intervention is not yet a widely implemented tool. GRADIENT COIL REQUIREMENTS GRADIENT COILS Gradient coil performance influences the system capabilities and thus image quality in a number of ways. Important characteristics of gradient coils include the following. GRADIENT COIL FUNCTIONS Linearity Gradient coils produce linear field gradients in the main magnetic field.

Surface coils are sensitive to signal close to the receiver coil and fairly insensitive to signal further away from the coil, thus maximizing the signal reception from that area and minimizing the noise from regions outside. These coils are usually small and designed to fit closely around specific regions of the anatomy. Flexible surface coils can be wrapped around the body part of interest. Surface coils are used for breast imaging: they are receive-only and are necessary in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution and SNR.

In the assessment of breast cancer, the calibre and distribution of vessels and capillaries may be observed using MRI by creating image contrast between tissues due to intravascular susceptibility-based imaging techniques (bolus-tracking). The principle behind such measurements is the use of fast dynamic imaging techniques to track the in-flow and out-flow of contrast agents during transit through tissues. The difference in magnetic susceptibility between the tissue and the blood carrying the contrast agent results in spin dephasing which in turn leads to signal loss, especially when T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences are used.

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