By Jacques Oosthuizen
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Additional resources for Environmental health : emerging issues and practice
1983; Willis, 1965). More recently, Fatoki et al. (2000) has used GC-FPD for the determination of tributyltin concentrations in the coastal water and freshwater sediments from both the Port Elizabeth and East London harbors in South Africa, which contributed to resources for building regulatory data in that part of the world. 2. Background Aquatic pollution is a major cause in the decline of resources from water. It is, thus, important to monitor the condition of water. A major concern is the need to develop accurate, reliable and efficient speciation methods for the determination of the polluting compounds within ultra-low detectable ranges.
Many organisms are able to regulate the metal concentrations in their tissues. Fish and the crustacea can excrete essential metals, such as copper, zinc, and iron that are present in excess. , 1984). , 1984). Thus, bivalves tend to suffer from metal accumulation in polluted environments. In estuarine systems, bivalves often serve as biomonitor organisms in areas of suspected pollution (Kennish, 1992). Shell fishing waters are closed if metal levels make shellfish unfit for human consumption. In comparison to freshwater fish and invertebrates, aquatic plants are equally or less sensitive to cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc.
Today, a substantial body of knowledge on OTs and heavy metals in waters of the developed countries of Europe, America, Asia and Oceania has evolved. S-EPA, 2000, 2001 and 2002). , 2000). At present, it is doubtful if specific legislation exists controlling the use of TBT in many, if not all developing countries (Samson and Shenker, 2000). This is primarily due to the lack of supporting data on the occurrence and impact of TBT in these countries. , 2001). Owing to its extremely toxic effects to aquatic life at low concentrations, TBT and other forms of organotin such as triphenyltin are legislatively banned to be used as antifouling paints from since the late 1980s in most European and North American countries (Jiang and Yang, 2000).