By Hong-Wu He, Hao Peng, Xiao-Song Tan
This publication provides crucial study on a category of environmentally pleasant alkylphosphonate herbicides. This category of herbicides acted as a aggressive inhibitor of the pyruvate dehydrogenase advanced (PDHc) to manage weeds. The bioreasoning and systematic process, from simple study to box checks of candidate compounds, are brought. the fundamental study covers the molecular layout, chemical synthesis, organic actions overview, structure-activity courting research and structural optimization. accordingly, the publication reports the biochemistry of PDHc inhibitors, the selectivity among mammals and crops, and the mechanism of herbicidal job of novel alkylphosphonates as selective PDHc inhibitors. box trials for chosen alkylphosphonate applicants as herbicides also are integrated. This e-book offers a legitimate foundation for the rational layout and improvement of novel herbicides as potent PDHc inhibitors with solid enzyme-selective inhibition of plant PDHc among mammals and crops. those reviews take complete merits of the low toxicity and coffee residual effect of selective PHDc inhibitors to layout an efficient and environmentally pleasant herbicide. This booklet is predicated on two decades of analysis on alkylphosphonates and phosphorus-containing PDHc inhibitors, and demonstrates how you can improve those PDHc inhibitors as an efficient and “green” herbicide candidate.
Hong-Wu He, PhD, is a Professor on the Key Laboratory of Pesticide & Chemical Biology, Ministry of schooling of China, and Director of the Institute of Pesticide Chemistry, collage of Chemistry, primary China basic collage, China.
Hao Peng, PhD, and Xiao-Song Tan are either affiliate Professors on the Key Laboratory of Pesticide & Chemical Biology, Ministry of schooling of China, university of Chemistry, principal China common college, China.
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Extra resources for Environmentally Friendly Alkylphosphonate Herbicides
Both inhibitors were found to be competitive tightbinding reversible inhibitors. Kinetic parameters (Ki) for the inhibition of E. 76 µM respectively. 1-3 turned out to be a tight slower binding but stronger inhibitor than 1-2 against human PDHc E1. 46 µM for 1-2) Kinetic analysis by measuring the reaction rate through the decarboxylation step revealed that both PDHc E1 either from E. coli or from human have the similar inhibition patterns. The result also showed that sodium acetylphosphinate 1-3 was a stronger inhibitor against both enzymes than sodium acetyl(methyl)phosphinate 1-2.
Therefore, 1-1 that happens to be the best inhibitor in this group, deserves further modiﬁcation and optimization. ’s work, sodium O-methyl acetylphosphonate 1-1 as a hit compound was optimized. 18). In order to ﬁnd a lead compound with desired herbicidal activity, different structural unit Q was introduced into this phosphonate scaffold resulting a series of 1-oxophosphonic acid derivatives . About 150 compounds including ten series of 1-oxophosphonic acid derivatives (i)–(x) were synthesized to examine their herbicidal activity at an early stage of our work.
Their inhibition against pea PDHc was evaluated. 5) . ’s work showed that 1-1 was a good inhibitor against E. coli PDHc. 1-1 was also found to be a good competitive inhibitor of pea PDHc by Baillie et al. later . ’s work, 1-2 caused timedependent inhibition with a half-life of inactivation (t1/2) of approximately 12 min at 10 µM. 3 µM. 1-6 was much less active, whereas 1-5 with Me as R' and H as R'' were inactive at all. 3 µMb IC50 = 165 µMa Inactive t1/2 = 12 min at 1mMb The above results suggested that substituents R' and R" on the skeleton of the monosodium of acetylphosphinic acid or acetylphosphonic acid 1 would greatly affect the enzyme inhibitory ability.