By Sören Prip Beier, Peter Dybdahl Hede
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Extra info for Essentials of Chemistry, 2nd edition
It is seen that the electron configuration of gold deviates from the normal “addition of electrons to orbitals” principle since only one electron is in the 6s-orbital the 5dorbitals are filled. But as described for the 4th and 5th period this gives a particular stable configuration for the d-orbitals. Pb, >Xe@6s 2 4 f 14 5d 10 6 p 2 , core electron configuration corresponds to the noble gas xenon. Besides that 2 electrons in the 6s-orbital, 14 electrons in the 4f-orbitals, 10 electrons in the 5d-orbitals, and 2 electrons in the 6p-orbital.
One of the molecular orbitals is a bond orbital (ı1s) and one is an anti-bond orbital (ı*1s). Since the molecular bond orbital (V1s) is lower in energy level at the two individual atomic orbitals, the two valence electrons rather prefer so stay in the bond orbital. The energy level of the anti-bond orbital (V*1s) is higher than that of the atomic orbitals and thus the valence electrons will no be hosted in this orbital. So because the total energy can be minimized it is beneficial for the two hydrogen atoms to form a hydrogen molecule.
Furthermore the electrons closer to the nucleus constitute a kind of shielding or screening for the outer electrons. This shielding further reduces the strength of the attraction exerted by the nucleus on the outer electrons, so again they are therefore easier to remove and the ionization energy is lower. 38 Atoms Chemistry Example 1- Q: Ionization energy The ionization energy increases when you move from the left to the right in a period. In Figure 1- 11 the ionization energies for the elements of the 2nd period are showed as an example.