By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Committee on Mine Placement of Coal Combustion Wastes
Burning coal in electrical application vegetation produces, as well as energy, residues that comprise ingredients that may be destructive to the surroundings. The administration of huge volumes of coal combustion residues (CCRs) is a problem for utilities, simply because they need to both position the CCRs in landfills, floor impoundments, or mines, or locate replacement makes use of for the cloth. This examine makes a speciality of the location of CCRs in lively and deserted coal mines. The committee believes that placement of CCRs in mines as a part of the reclamation procedure could be a workable choice for the disposal of this fabric so long as the location is correctly deliberate and conducted in a fashion that avoids major adversarial environmental and healthiness affects. This document discusses a number of steps which are taken with making plans and coping with using CCRs as minefills, together with an built-in means of CCR characterization and location characterization, administration and engineering layout of placement actions, and layout and implementation of tracking to minimize the chance of illness relocating from the mine web site to the ambient surroundings. Enforceable federal criteria are wanted for the disposal of CCRs in minefills to make sure that states have sufficient, particular authority and they enforce minimal safeguards.
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Additional info for Managing Coal Combustion Residues in Mines
To meet their CCR disposal needs, utilities often, as part of their contractual relationship with coal suppliers, require that a mine take the CCRs for use in reclamation, the process by which land-use capability is restored at a mine site. This report examines the management, benefits, and health and environmental risks associated with the placement of CCRs in active and abandoned coal mines. To begin, this chapter provides an introduction to coal mining and CCRs to set the stage for the more in-depth discussion of CCRs and their placement in mines in the following chapters.
Energy Information Administration (EIA) plant-level annual report (F767), an annual voluntary survey of utilities conducted by the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA), and state-level information. , fly ash, bottom ash, FGD). Even though independent power producers who fire coal refuse contribute a significant annual tonnage of CCRs to the total placed in mines for reclamation, most coal refuse-fired facilities are smaller than 100 MW; thus, their data are not contained in the EIA database. Additionally, facilities that report to the EIA are required to report only the amount of CCR placed in landfills and surface impoundments and the amount sold.
8. The acidic fly ashes generally came from power plants burning bituminous coal extracted from southeastern or mid-Atlantic states. Trace Element Content The trace elements contained in CCRs are derived from naturally occurring minerals present in the source coal. , lead, cadmium) tend to be concentrated in CCRs as a result of the combustion process. The extent 38 MANAGING COAL COMBUSTION RESIDUES IN MINES of concentration is related to the ash content (percentage of non-combustible material) in the coal.