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By Joseph Hun-wei Lee, Vincent Chu

Wisdom of turbulent blending by way of plumes and jets, comparable to these encountered in smokestack emissions, volcanic eruptions, and sewage discharges, is critical for controlling environmental impression and for assessing probability. Lee (civil engineering, U. of Hong Kong) and Chu (civil engineering and utilized mechanics, McGill U., Canada) increase a Lagrangian method of version turbulent jets and plumes, starting with uncomplicated difficulties, and advancing towards the sensible case of a turbulent buoyant jet in a density-stratified pass move. The textual content could be of use to engineers and scholars learning hydraulics and environmental fluid mechanics.

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Turbulent jets and plumes - a Lagrangian approach

Wisdom of turbulent blending through plumes and jets, resembling these encountered in smokestack emissions, volcanic eruptions, and sewage discharges, is necessary for controlling environmental influence and for assessing hazard. Lee (civil engineering, U. of Hong Kong) and Chu (civil engineering and utilized mechanics, McGill U.

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Therefore, the reaction is thermodynamically impossible without an external source of energy; we need not await laboratory studies to rule out the possibility of its occurrence in the atmosphere. Another important use of thermodynamic data in atmospheric applications is the evaluation of the exothermicity of chemical reactions which may play a role in the thermal budget of the atmosphere. 12) where M can be any arbitrary atom or molecule (see the discussion of termolecular reactions below). 4. 4 kcal per mole.

Barth. Planet Space Sci: 25, 79, 1977. , Kinetics and Dynamics of Elementary Gas Reactions. Butterworths, 1980. , and P. Hamill, Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid-water droplets in the stratosphere. J Atmos Sci: 12, 517, 1981. , Molecules and Radiation: An Introduction to Modern Molecular Spectroscopy. MIT Press, 1978. A. J. W. H. M. W. E. E. Clemens, Ozone density in the mesosphere (5090 km) measured by the SME limb scanning near infrared spectrometer.

Typical potential energy curves for a diatomic molecule. 8. Potential energy diagram for the principal states of the oxygen molecule. Adapted from Gilmore (1964). 9. Potential energy curves for a predissociative process in a diatomic molecule. 7, can such a transition lead to dissociation? Dissociation can often occur in such a case through curve crossing onto a predissociating state. 9 presents a corresponding potential energy curve showing this phenomenon. The excited state, XY∗ , which is initially produced, can cross into XY∗∗ by a non-radiative transition or by collisioninduced crossing.

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